# 关于计算机学生的读书及学习建议(专业方面)

##### 日期:2014-06-24 15:52:06

##### 最后更新日期:2014-06-27 20:38:54

Advice to a Beginning Graduate Student or What is Research? or The 4 R's of Graduate School: Reading, Rithmetic, Research, and Writing

作者:

Manuel Blum，95年图灵奖获得者

地址:

http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~mblum/research/pdf/grad.html

片段摘抄:

一.关于阅读

a.Books are not scrolls. 书籍不像卷轴

Scrolls must be read like the Torah from one end to the other. Books are random access -- a great innovation over scrolls.

Make use of this innovation! Do NOT feel obliged to read a book from beginning to end.Permit yourself to open a book and start reading from anywhere.In the case of mathematics or physics or anything especially hard, try to find something anything that you can understand. 翻译:

书籍不像卷轴，卷轴必须从卷首读到卷尾，而书籍可以随意翻阅---针对卷轴的非常重要的革新。要充分利用这一方法，不要被读一本书一定要从头都到尾的习惯约束。准许自己翻开一本书，翻到什么地方就从什么地方读。在数学和物理或者其他很困难的事上时，尽量找到一些可以理解的东西来读。

b.Read what you can.

c.Consider writing what you read as you read it

二.关于学习

a.You are all computer scientists.You know what FINITE AUTOMATA can do.You know what TURING MACHINES can do.For example, Finite Automata can add but not multiply.Turing Machines can compute any computable function.Turing machines are incredibly more powerful than Finite Automata.Yet the only difference between a FA and a TM is that the TM, unlike the FA, has paper and pencil.

Think about it.

It tells you something about the power of writing.

Without writing, you are reduced to a finite automaton.

With writing you have the extraordinary power of a Turing machine.

有限自动机能做加法，而不能做乘法，图灵机能计算出任何可计算函数。图灵机比有限自动机的强大的原因在于有一只铅笔和一张纸。好好考虑这个问题。

三.关于思考

a.CLAUDE SHANNON once told me that as a kid, he remembered being stuck on a jigsaw puzzle.

His brother, who was passing by, said to him:

"You know: I could tell you something."

That's all his brother said.

Yet that was enough hint to help Claude solve the puzzle.

The great thing about this hint... is that you can always give it to yourself !!!

I advise you, when you're stuck on a hard problem,

to imagine a little birdie or an older version of yourself whispering

"... I could tell you something..."

b.The importance of PARADOX and CONTRADICTION.

When you can prove that a statement S is true,

and you can prove that the same statement S is false,

then you KNOW that that you're on to something:

Something is wrong somewhere.

Never underestimate the power of a contradiction.

It is one of our most potent sources of knowledge

自相矛盾和悖论的重要性，当你证明某个结论它是正确的，你同时又证明了这个结论是错误的，那么你肯定知道你在什么地方出错了。不要低估悖论的重要性，它可能是我们潜在的知识。

c.Make a list for yourself of good ways to pursue a problem.

My own favorite is to try small examples.

形成自己解题的习惯

d.Brains are muscles.They grow strong with exercise. And even if they're strong, they grow weak without it.